Glossary A-C

A

Acacia Gum – is a gum made from the acacia tree.  It acts as a prebiotic to help good bacteria in the intestine and remove toxins from the body.  Acacia is used to help control high cholesterol, irritable bowel syndrome, and obesity.  Acacia gum itself is great for removing plaque and gum inflammation.  15-30 grams a day as a fiber use is safe but do not over do any fiber applications beyond 30 grams for long periods of time, it could be counter-productive.

Acety-L-Carnitine HCI – an amino acid that delays the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, better than the L- carnitine form.  ALC participates in the metabolism process for energy.  Studies have found that it may be a useful supplement for slowing the decline in brain function due to age.

Alanine – is an amino acid used to produce proteins.  It generates energy and strengthens the immune system.  Meats and poultry are good sources of alanine.

Alfalfa – a natural source of vitamin K and other valuable minerals.   Alfalfa also contains chlorophyll to improve circulation and aids in treating intestinal disorders.   Up to 2,000 mg/day can be helpful.

Allinin – A phytochemical acting as an antioxidant.  Lowers inflammation, cholesterol, and fights infection.  It is made from garlic and may help prevent cancer.

Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) – is an antioxidant that enhances glucose uptake in non-insulin dependent diabetes.  Assists liver repair and may defend brain function against aging.

Aloe – derived from aloe plant leaves, aloe assists in the relief of constipation (latex form) and has anti-inflammatory properties (filtered form).  Has healing properties on skin and wounds.  TWO KINDS OF ALOE: one is highly active because it is made from the whole leaf and relieves constipation.   The other is mild and assists in soothing and healing the digestive track.

American Ginseng – Stimulates the immune system and athletic performance.

Amino acids – Amino acids supply your body with energy and are the building blocks for many vital processes such as aiding in the formation of tissues, organs, muscles.  Provide your body with essential protein nutrients and antioxidants.  Promotes fat burn and lean muscle growth.

There are 20 amino acids for normal bodily functions.  Nine (9) of these are essential amino acids that your body can not make and must be obtained from foods.  These essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

Amylase – is found in pancreatic and intestinal juices as well as saliva to digest carbohydrates.

Anthocyanins – may prevent macular degeneration, and cataracts. They are found in blackcurrants, blackberries, cranberries, cherries, and blueberries.

Antioxidants – fend off free radicals from damaging cells and interfering with the functions to develop a healthy body.

Arginine – an amino acid that assists in wound healing and helping remove excess ammonia from the body; thus, stimulating the immune function.

Ashwagandha – is an Indian herb that assists with reducing anxiety, fights depression, and increases brain function.  Long term use can result in side effects such as headaches and upset stomach when taken.  Other side effects on the liver and thyroid are being studied.

Asparagine – is a non-essential amino acid that helps the synthesis of combining proteins and enzymes.  Food sources are fish, dairy, beef, poultry, eggs, asparagus, potatoes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains.  It has a diuretic function stimulating the liver and kidneys to eliminate toxins.

Asian Ginseng – is an herb used as a dietary supplement to improve general well-being, physical stamina, and concentration; stimulate immune function; slow the aging process; and relieve various health problems such as respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.  It can also be used for sexual enhancement. There is not any standardized dose established for ginseng use.  Follow direction on packaging and buy from a reputable company.

Asparagus root – reduces inflammation in the urinary tract and may prevent kidney stones.   Asparagus has antibiotic properties.

Aspartic Acid (aspartate) – is a non-essential amino acid that assists in the synthesis of combining proteins and enzymes for supporting cells throughout the body especially in the nervous system.   

Astragalus – is an herb that supports the immune response.   Teamed with echinacea, they enhance the immune system.

Astaxanthin – is a red pigment found in fish, shrimp, and algae.  It is a powerful carotenoid with antioxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties and may help with skin aging, cardiovascular risks, protect the brain, and moderate the immune system.  Studies show it may also improve athletic performance.  Astaxanthin crosses the blood brain/eye barrier to deliver nutrition to both sides of the cell – inner and outer walls.  Typical daily doses are 4-12mg as a supplement.  Use only natural gel pills.

B

Beta-Carotene – from a plant source, the body can convert it into vitamin A thus acting as an antioxidant and boosting the immune system.  For most healthy adults, the recommended daily allowance of beta-carotene (in the form of vitamin A) is 3,000 IU for males and 2,130 IU for females.  Some of its highest food sources include carrots, spinach, kale, and cantaloupe.

Beta-Sitosterol – helps reduce blood levels of high cholesterol.  Typical dose is 60 to 130 mg three times a day.

Bilberry – is the European version of the blueberry with many of the same properties and health benefits.  Helps maintain the flexibility of blood cells to move thru the capillaries.  Important in many other ways like lowering blood pressure, inhibiting clot formation, and enhancing the blood supply for antioxidant protection.  In fact, it is more powerful than vitamins E and C and the list goes on and on to protect the eyes, strengthen collagen tissue, anti-inflammatory, and even anti-aging properties.  I’ll take some!!

Bioflavonoids – plant pigments such as quercetin, rutin, and bilberry support health as anti-inflammatory, antihistames, and antiviral agents in defending the body.

Biotin (B7) – B vitamin important in the metabolism of protein, fats, and carbohydrates.

Black cohosh – reduces hot flashes and tempers mood.

Boron – assists in the metabolism of calcium, magnesium, copper, phosphorus, and vitamins D in supporting and building bone structure.  Helps the absorption of calcium.  3mg max daily typical dose.

Boswellia – an Asian herb used to reduce inflammation in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Brewer’s yeast – a rich source of B-complex nutrients, protein, and minerals such as chromium.  Best source of chromium for bioavailability.  Assists in the treatment of diabetes.

Bromelain – A digestive enzyme that assists in digesting protein.  Acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in reducing pain and swelling from arthritis, muscle pain, injuries, etc.  Produced from pineapples.  Works well with Quercetin to reduce inflammation.

Butcher’s broom – stimulates circulation.  May treat varicose veins.

C

Calcium – is the most abundant mineral with 99% located in the bones and teeth.  It is also necessary for blood clotting, healthy nerve cells, heart regulation, blood clotting, and muscle contraction.  Supports preventing osteoporosis. Calcium isn’t generated by the body and has to be taken in from food (canned sardines and salmon, dairy products, and green leafy vegetables and supplementation (calcium citrate).  800 to 1,200mg is a good range for supplementation if you are not meeting your daily RDA.  Supplementing 1000IU of vitamin D in two split does is recommended.  However, the body can only absorb 600mg at a time.  Primary food sources are milk and milk products such as cheese. (RDA 1,000mg/1,000mg)  Take less if you are a milk lover.

Carbohydrates – a compound used in the body for energy such as sugar and starch.

Carnitine – creates cellular energy in the body by boosting metabolism.  Food sources include meat, fish, poultry, beans, and avocado.

Carnosine – prevents complications of diabetes, improves muscle strength,  enhances athletic performance, and delays signs of aging.  Food sources are meats, fish, and poultry but is not found in plant based foods.

Carteonoids – phytochemicals that act as antioxidants.  Carteonoids aid the heart by reducing cholesterol.  Sources include lycopene, and carotene.  It may inhibit cancer.

Cat’s Claw – is used as a dietary supplement for a variety of health conditions including viral infections (such as herpes and HIV), Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, arthritis, diverticulitis, peptic ulcers, colitis, gastritis, hemorrhoids, parasites, and leaky bowel syndrome.  It boosts the immune system and helps relieve osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.  Basically, it’s an all-around supplement for inflammation, and infections.  A dose from 300 to 500 mg per day is a common suggested dose for osteoarthritis and infections.

Catechins – Antioxidants.  Prevents clogging of the arteries.  May fight cancer.  Main food sources:   Grapes, green tea, red wine, apricots, beans, strawberries, apples, and pears, and chocolates.

Chicory Root – Chicory roots are a rich source of a water-soluble fiber called inulin that is not digestible.  Chicory acts as a prebiotic fiber to aid digestion, and boost blood sugar levels. However, too much intake can cause gas pains, diarrhea, cramps, and bloating.  

Chlorella – a form of algae full of nutrients such as protein (16 grams!), riboflavin, thiamine, iron, and vitamin A.  Not used particularly to supplement but contains an array of vitamins and minerals like a multi-vitamin.  Spirulina is a similar food source but has greater copper and phosphorus content.

Chloride – is an important electrolyte in the blood stream that controls the amount of fluid pressure inside and outside your cells in balance.  It maintains blood volume, blood pressure, and pH levels.  An elevated level of chloride usually indicates dehydration and/or kidney disease.

Chlorophyll – Improves circulation, and helps tissues expel toxic substances.  Chlorophyll is a great source of magnesium and trace elements.  Helps relieve constipation.

Choline – is an essential nutrient needed for several steps in the metabolism and synthesizing of phosphatidylcholine.  Choline is used to treat two important liver diseases; chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis.  It is also being used for depression, Alzheimer’s disease, and schizophrenia.  Symptoms of a deficiency are fatty liver, kidney necrosis, and muscle damage.  Nutritionists recommended daily intake: 425mg for women and 550mg for men.  Food sources include beef and chicken liver, eggs, and fish like cod and salmon.  People most at risk:  athletes thru high physical activity, people who drink too much alcohol, and pregnant and postmenopausal women

Chondroitin Sulfate – provides structure in cartilage for holding water and nutrients thus allowing blood flow to difficult places.  CS helps restore joint function for people with osteoarthritis.   Commonly used in conjunction with glucosamine for improving joint mobility, Typical dose is 400mg 3 times daily with glucosamine sulfate.  A pill with collagen and a contingent of other nutrient are important for complete knee/joint health.  Research indicates it may also prevent Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

Chromium – A mineral that performs glucose metabolism, increases effectiveness of insulin to regulate glucose levels.  Food sources are corn oil, whole-grain cereals, and brewer’s yeast.  (RDA 35mcg/25mcg)

Chromium picolinate (CP) – an essential trace mineral that helps maintain normal blood sugar levels.  CP may raise HDL – good cholesterol while reducing overall cholesterol.  It supports moderating diabetes.  Typical daily dose – 200mcg. Food sources: brewer’s yeast, cereals, and grains.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome – is a frustrating illness that can be debilitating with flu-like feelings, aching muscles and joints, headaches, anxiety, pain, loss of appetite, and a myriad of other nuisance conditions.  Effective nutrients to support the immune system in this case: chromium polynicotinate 200mg, CoQ10 75mg, coenzyme A, L-Carnitine, lecithin 1,200mg, astragalus, and echinacea.  All of these help the immune system and provide energy.

Citrulline – Because the body doesn’t make this amino acid, it must be made from another called ornithine.  Citrulline produces energy and stimulates the immune system.  It metabolizes into L-arginine to detoxify ammonia, which damages the cells.

Coenzyme Q10 – may improve heart function and circulation.  Q10 lowers blood pressure by reducing resistance to blood flow, relieves angina, CHF, high cholesterol, and fights Raynaud’s disease for better circulation to extremities.  Typical dose is 100-200mg daily during meals.  Much higher doses are being used in Japan for cancer treatment.  The stable ubiquinone form is less expensive than ubiquinone and just as effective.

Collagen – collagens are proteins that are part of many body tissues, including skin, cartilage, and joints.  The body utilizes collagen from meats, seafood, and vitamins C and E.  80 to 90 percent of collagen found in the body consists of types 1, 2 and 3.  Types 1 is for skin, hair, and nails.  Type 2 is for joint and cartilage support such as flexibility and range of motion.  Type 3 supports the cellular structure of organs and skin.  Type 5 helps skin, the placenta, and cell membranes. Type X aids in new bone and cartilage.  Consuming 5-10mg daily of Types 1 & 3 results in improvements for skin condition, joint comfort, heart condition, and bone density.  Greater amounts of Type 2 up to 600mg and beyond can be taken to treat painful joint conditions.  Most collagen is derived from bovine and chicken collagen and eggshell membrane.

Note:  A new form of collagen called UC-II enables less dosage and more effective per mg – general dosage range is 25 to 40mg.

Colloidal silver – Promotes healing and acts as a natural antibiotic for fighting bacteria, viruses, and fungi.  It must be used carefully per instructions.

Colostrum – enhances the thymus gland to create T cells, who attack infected cells to fight infection.  Also helps the body burn fat and build lean muscle.  It is derived from the first secretion from mammary glands after giving birth.

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) – Research suggests that CLA might reduce cancer.  CLA reduces body fat, may prevent atherosclerosis, and improves glucose tolerance.  Found in dairy products, beef, poultry, eggs, and corn oil.

Copper – a mineral that absorbs and utilizes iron, forms red blood cells, supports bone growth, and works with vitamin C to form elastin.  It strengthens blood vessel lining.  Copper is needed to make energy via adenosine triphosphate (ATP).  Copper enhances hair and skin health.  Food sources are nuts, legumes, meat organs, and oysters.  (RDA 900mcg/900mcg)

Creatine Monohydrate – used for the production of ATP, a source of energy for muscle contraction.  Athletes take up to 20 grams of divided doses a day.  Creatine is produced in the liver, pancreas, and kidneys but is also available from red meat.

Cysteine/Cystine – are non-essential amino acids that are part antioxidant and produce taurine.  Taurine supports the central nervous system and eyes.  Cysteine strengthens the protective lining of the stomach and intestines and aids in the formation of skin. They both improve the immune system.

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