Glossary D-H


Dandelion – an herb used to treat wide-ranging conditions, such as stomach and liver issues, diabetes, heart problems, anemia, and respiratory ailments.

Devil’s Claw – treats atherosclerosis, arthritis, gout, fibromyalgia, tendonitis, GI issues, and heart burn.

DHA  (Docosahexaenoic acid) – is an Omega-3 essential acid important for brain development, reduction of blood triglycerides.  DHA alone appears to be just as effective as fish oils.  It can be found in salmon, sardines, black cod, and albacore tuna.  5mg- 30mg per day is a standard daily dose.  50mg-200mg per day for lupus.

DHEA  (Dehydroepiandrosterone) – Stimulates hormone production in helping regulate bodily functions that affect skin, osteoporosis, lupus, osteoporosis, and helps brain function.

Digestive Enzymes – three classes, proteolytic enzymes needed to digest protein, lipases needed to digest fat, and amylases needed to digest carbohydrates.  Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme, has anti-inflammatory characteristics.  Proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, and bromelain may improve the immune system against shingles.

DLPA  (DL-Phenylalanine) – is a supplement containing an essential amino acid that assists in reducing pain and stress.

DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol) – is a compound produced by the brain that improves brain function, supports nerves, helps memory, and enhances physical performance,

DMG (Dimethylglycine) – An amino acid, protein, that improves tissue oxygenation and might help the body’s immune system.

DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) – has anti-inflammatory properties to resist connective tissue diseases such as scleroderma, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis and help muscle injuries.  Can cause uncomfortable conditions such as an upset stomach, and headaches.

Dong Quai – is used primarily for menstrual cramps, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and menopausal symptoms. Also used as a blood purifier and to treat anemia.


Echinacea – enhances the immune system.    It also helps regulate blood sugar levels, fight the flu, lower blood pressure, and reduce inflammation.  Mild side effects that can produce allergic reactions.  Take only for a short periods.

Elderberry – is rich in antioxidants and is used to support resisting the influenza virus. It also stimulates cytokine production, which helps reduce inflammation, and improve immune function.  It resists the symptoms and duration of colds.  Elderberry is an excellent source of vitamin C.

Elderberries in raw uncooked form are poisonous.  Elderberries must be cooked to eliminate unwanted substances.  Pills are processed for safe consumption.

Elastin – is a key protein for elasticity of the extracellular matrix. It is highly elastic and also present in connective tissue.  Elastin helps skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched.

Essential amino acids – 9 amino acids that support normal body function.  They are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine.  They assist in the formation of tissues, organs, muscles, energy, and are the building blocks for many vital functions.  Your body cannot make them and they must be acquired from food sources such as salmon, trout, flounder, oyster, sole, shrimp, catfish, and other fish.

Essential fatty acids – Helps reduce inflammation – evening primrose oil, flaxseed oil, fish oils.

Essential Oils – Essential oils are used in the practice of aromatherapy, in which they are inhaled through various methods.  Inhaling the aromas from essential oils can stimulate areas of your limbic system, which is a part of your brain that plays a role in emotions, behaviors, sense of smell, and long-term memory

Evening Primrose Oil – has anti-inflammatory properties and may act as a blood thinner.  Studies indicate that it is effective for rheumatoid arthritis.  Found in black currant seed oil and borage oil supplements.  Helps relieve scleroderma and eczema.


Fats – are a macronutrient that the body can’t make on its own but stores energy from the digestive process, insulates us, and protects our vital organs.

Fenugreek Seed – treats digestive problems such as upset stomach, constipation, and inflammation of the stomach.

Feverfew – an herb used for the prevention and treatment of migraine headaches.

Fiber – there are two types; water soluble and water insoluble.  Soluble fiber lowers cholesterol and blood sugar levels.  Insoluble fiber protects against heart diseases and relieves constipation.  Soluble fiber is found in fruits and vegetables while insoluble fibers are found in whole grains and whole fruit; they influence two major processes in the body.  20 to 30 grams are advised in a total diet with lots of liquids; larger amounts could impede the absorption of other nutrients and medicines.  Modern day processing has stripped a lot of natural fibers from our diet.  Whole –grain and bran cereals are great for insoluble fiber.  Apples, potatoes, beans, nuts, fresh fruit, peas, and brown rice are excellent sources of soluble fiber.

Fibrin – is an insoluble protein that forms during the clotting of blood.  It can impede the flow of blood after it performs its’ work in the healing process.

Fish Oil (EPA and DHA) – contains omega-3 oils to help keep triglycerides under control and subsequently ward off heart disease.  Also keeps blood from clotting too rapidly.  It has anti-inflammatory.  COPD is less likely to develop with use.  Derived from salmon, mackerel, albacore tuna, and other cold water fish.  Fish oil has also been used for Crohn’s disease, high blood pressure, arthritis, ulcerative colitis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), lupus, Raynaud’s disease, and a litany of other conditions.  Taking vitamin E helps protect EPA and DHA damage in the body from oxidative damage.  Omega-3 oils are very an important major supplement.  (Also see flaxseed oil).

Flavonoid – are powerful antioxidants with anti-inflammatory and immunity properties.  They help the body function and protect against toxins.  In the diet they are found in fruits and vegetables like apples, berries, tea, soy beans, red wine, and citrus fruits.  They may help reduce the risk of cancer, degenerative diseases, and cardiovascular diseases.

Flaxseed Oil – is an omega-3 essential fatty acid containing magnesium, and potassium.  Also contains linoleic acid and alpha linolenic acid (ALA).  Flaxseed reduces the pain, inflammation, and swelling of arthritis.  It also offers relief from constipation and ulcerative colitis and vaginitis.  It also helps lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels.  Seeds can be eaten on salads for nutrition and fiber.  Does not reduce triglycerides and consequently may not help heart disease.

Fluoride – A mineral that stimulates bone formation and builds strong teeth.  Food sources are fluorinated water, tea, and marine fish.  (RDA 4mg/3mg)

Folate (B9) –  is a B-vitamin that is naturally present in many foods. Your body needs folate to make DNA and other genetic material.  Folate converts to folic acid for energy and blood formation.

Folic Acid – Crucial for red blood cell development.  Folic acid is needed for energy and blood formation.  It is also needed for DNA synthesis especially in a fetus to allow cells to replicate normally.  It prevents excessive homocysteine from being a negative factor in heart disease.  Also protects against birth defects in early pregnancy.

The typical healthy diet of fruits, vegetables, and leafy green vegetables goes a long way in supporting the body in two major defensives.  400 to 800 micrograms are adequate consumption for supplementation along with vitamins B6 and B12 to combat excessive homocysteine.  However, too much folic acid and low B12 in people over 60 can lead to mental decline.  Food’s high in folic acid are avocados, asparagus, bananas, broccoli, eggs, and lentils – all goods super foods but watch your intake never the less.

Multi-vitamins generally have good levels of folic acid from 400 to 800 units.  Some multis have as much as 800 mcg to start with and one can easily take additional intake with 400-800 mcg on top. Too much!  Avoid consuming more than 1,000 mcg per day in supplements. Some doctors warn supplementation of folic along with excessive folic acid from food could be fueling rising rates of colon cancer.

FOS (fructo-oligosaccharide) – A probiotic fiber that improves the immune response, lowers cholesterol and blood-sugar levels.

Fo-ti – Associated with anti-aging, improving mental function, heart health, and the immune system.

Free radicals – Free radicals are one of the by-products of oxygen use by every cell in our body. These substances damage the body’s cells through oxidation, the same process that rusts metal and turns butter rancid. Oxidation has also been shown to contribute to heart disease, cataracts, aging, and infections.


Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) – is an amino acid that performs as a neurotransmitter in the nervous system.  It aids in brain function and metabolism.

Garlic – Protects against respiratory infections and destroys bacteria.  Garlic enhances the immune system.  Garlic supports healthy cholesterol levels and circulation.  A natural antibiotic, garlic reduces infection, and detoxifies and dilates the blood stream.  Garlic is anti-bacterial, anti-virus, and anti- fungal.  Helps reduce high blood pressure.  Fights stress and fatigue.  Caution:  It can interfere with prescription blood thinners.

Ginger – is a tropical herb full of antioxidants that ward off germs.  Such a great thought these days.  It is a good remedy for treating nausea, stomach pain, the flu, bacteria like E.coli, respiratory ailments (RSV), arthritis, lowers blood sugar, oral bacteria, sore muscles, lowers cholesterol, and maybe even slows down cancer (research in progress).

Ginkgo Biloba – is an Asian tree that produces a substance that has been used for centuries for mental function and blood circulation.  Ginkgo is a blood thinner.  Do not take anticoagulant medications along with Ginkgo.  Do not take ginkgo biloba if you are pregnant, elderly, or have a bleeding disorder.

Ginseng – is an herb that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.  It helps regulate blood sugar, boost the immune system, improve brain function, and promotes energy.  200 to 400mg a day is normally taken.

Glucosamine Sulfate (GS) – is found in around joint tissues, aka cartilage, and fluids that cushion your joints.  Helps slow the rate of joint degeneration and relieves osteoarthritis.  GS when combined with chondroitin sulfate provides relief for joints especially the knees.  Together, to an extent, they slow the loss of cartilage and even may reverse the loss.  As a supplement, take a complex that provides 1,500mg of glucosamine sulfate and 1,200mg of chondroitin along with other substances to nurture the knees back to health.  It is best to take the complex along with one that supports the supplementation of collagen.  All these ingredients are important to feed the joint with a full slate of nutrients.

Glutamic Acid – an amino acid used in the synthesis of protein.  The body turns it into glutamate to support transmission of signals between cells.

Glutamine – an amino acid that helps build muscles by providing nitrogen and carbon. It also supports the immune system and other essential functions in the body.

Glutathione – A powerful antioxidant amino acid that protects the eye lens and maintains the lens membranes.  Glutathione must be produced by your body.  It is primarily made up of three amino acids; glutamine, glycine, and cysteine.  It decreases with age and needs help to maintain adequate levels.  Meats, vegetables, vitamin C, milk thistle, turmeric, and whey protein are excellent sources for glutathione levels.  Best form of glutathione is Setria™.

Glycine – an amino acid that assists providing additional creatine in developing muscle tissue and improves glycogen storage.  Glycine is necessary for central nervous system function and a healthy prostate.

Goldenseal – is an herb that suppresses various ailments including colds, digestive problems, diarrhea, urinary tract infections, suppress E.coli, respiratory issues, and upset stomach.  Too much can be toxic but daily intake of less than 500mg, 3 times a day is a suggested regiment.  Do not take if you are pregnant, have any kidney disease even kidney stones, or severe liver disease.

Grape seed oil – Essential fatty acid.  It contains a high amount of linoleic acid.

Green Tea – has shown to improve blood flow and reduce cholesterol as well as support a healthy heart.  Other benefits include better brain function, weight loss, inflammatory skin diseases, and combat Type 2 diabetes.  A pleasant beverage, drinking green tea in place of sugary drinks can reduce 10s of 1,000s of calories a year.  Lose weight by just substituting a drink!

Guar gum – is a fiber not only used as a laxative but moderates diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome.    It has been shown to reduce LDL cholesterol and high blood pressure.  Guar gum supports the health of your digestive system.


Hawthorn berry – is a berry full of antioxidants.  It has anti-inflammatory properties and reduces blood pressure.  Hawthorn can also be found in supplement form.

HCA (hydroxycitric acid) – Interrupts conversion of carbohydrates to fat for weight control.

Histamine – is a compound released by injury, allergies, or inflammation; thus, contracting the smooth muscles.

Histidine – is an amino acid that helps make protein.  It helps maintain a normal ph. level of 7 to balance the acidic/alkaline levels of the body.  Food source are meat, fish, poultry, nuts, seeds and whole grains.

Homocysteine – an amino acid produced in the body during methionine metabolism.  High levels in the body increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Horse Chestnut – a powerful extract with anti-oxidant properties.  As a supplement, it is used to treat and relieve symptoms of chronic venous when it’s hard to pump blood up out of the leg.

Horsetail – abundant source of silica to support development of bone, hair, and nails.   Reduces water retention and reduces inflammation.

Huperzine A – Supports brain function and fights memory loss.

Hyaluronic acid (HA) – is produced by your body and mostly found in your skin, connective tissue, joints, and eyes.  HA provides hydration to skin, hair, and nails as well as the cartilage tissues of joints.  It binds with tissues to keep them well lubricated and moist; the skin and joints have the most concentration.  Unfortunately as we age, and just like other nutrients, our body produces less and less.  Your skin and joints are the prevalent signs of reduced hyaluronic acid.  From wrinkles to arthritic joint pain, our body is suffering from lack of HA and collagen and talking loud and clear.

5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) – is manufactured in the body from L-tryptophan, an amino acid that aids in producing serotonin.  Serotonin is involved in sleep, pain, inflammation, moods, and several other functions.  It must be consumed in a supplement to have meaningful influence on insomnia, depression, migraine headaches, and fibromyalgia.

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