Glossary I-R


Inosine – involved in replenishing ATP, a compound that releases energy and transports oxygen to the muscles.  Increases muscle development, blood circulation, and enhances the immune response.

Inositol – is vital for hair growth, reduced cholesterol, arteriosclerosis, and metabolism of fat and cholesterol.  Important food sources:  fruit, brewer’s yeast, lecithin, meats, milk, and whole grains.  Consuming large amounts of caffeine in the body reduces inositol in the body thus affecting the results of restricting excessive homocysteine (see folic acid).

Inulin – is a soluble fiber containing fructans from plants.  It helps the stomach by feeding the good bacteria in the stomach.  It assists the passage of food thru the digestive system and relieves constipation.  Chicory root is a great food source and others such as garlic, artichoke, wheat, and asparagus.  Chicory root can be taken in a supplement form of 15 mg.  Be careful, excessive amounts can cause bloating, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea.

Iodine – a trace element that helps metabolize excess fat.  Iodine is also important in physical and mental development.  Helps control metabolism.  Iodine is needed for a healthy thyroid gland to regulate growth and prevent birth defects.  Food sources are seafood, kelp, and iodized salt.  (RDA 150mcg/150mcg)

IP- 6 (Inositol B8) – A vitamin like substance found in the heart, liver, and brain.  Food sources include nuts, cereals, wheat, and legumes.  Displays activity that is antioxidant.  IP-6 is used in some nutritional circles for preventing cancer.  Promising but more study is needed.

Iron – is a mineral that helps red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to other cells.  It is involved in many functions and processes especially in treating anemia caused by low levels of iron.  Food sources are meat, and legumes. (RDA 8mg/18mg)

Isoleucine – an essential amino acid that assists in the formation of hemoglobin.  Also regulates the blood sugar levels and energy levels in muscle tissue.


Kelp – Take for iodine deficiency (thyroid) gland) contains calcium, iron, potassium, and magnesium.  FDA approved dosage 200 units.


Lactase – is an enzyme that breaks-down lactose in milk and other dairy products.  Used as a supplement for people who have a hard time digesting dairy products.

Lecithin – Lecithin Improves heart health reducing bad cholesterol levels and raising good cholesterol.  It helps in breaking down fatty sluggish livers to aid in bile production.  It is used in numerous food products like ice cream, breads, etc.  Food sources are soy beans, eggs, and sunflower seeds.  Caution:  High intake of lecithin can raise blood pressure.

Leptin – is a hormone that regulates fat storage in the body.

Leucine – is an essential amino acid and one of the branched-chain amino acids.  Leucine helps protect and heal tissues.  It also lowers blood sugar levels.  Food sources include beans, meat, nuts, soy flour, whole wheat, and brown rice.

L-Arginine – aids in liver detoxification.  L-Arginine is also required for the synthesis of creatine, an essential energy source for muscle contraction.

L-Carnitine – Assists in releasing energy from fat.  COPD patients should take it to increase exercise capacity.  Use for COPD, CHF, angina, chronic fatigue syndrome, diabetes, high triglycerides, ultra-endurance, high cholesterol, Raynaud’s disease.

L-Glutamine – A major fuel for the intestinal cells to maintain the villi of the intestine for nutrient absorption.  LG is a critical component for gut health.  A typical dose is 500 mg twice a day on empty stomach.  Vitamin B6 and Vitamin C support the L-Glutamine process.

Licorice – avoid all forms of black licorice.  Delicious but has numerous side effects like high blood pressure, edema, abnormal heart rhythms, and interference with medications.  Candy licorice isn’t as harmful (contains anise) but excessive use can cause digestive problems.

Linoleic acid – is an omega-6 fatty acid from meats, eggs, seeds, vegetable oils (Soy), and nuts.  LA is a two edge sword in that it is beneficial reducing cholesterol and low grade inflammation but too much omega-6 consumption leads to high blood pressure, blood clots, strokes, heart attacks, and retain water.  It is usually found in combination as a supplement with omega-3 in a proportioned dosage like 1,200/600mg.

Lions mane – a mushroom that helps mental clarity.  Lion’s mane stimulates the production of the nerve growth factor (NFG) and myelin (the insulation around nerve fibers).

Lipase – an enzyme found in the stomach and pancreatic juices and food fats.  Lipase aids in metabolizing fat.

Lysine – an essential amino acid not produced by the body and must be ingested thru diet or supplement.  Assists protein synthesis, aids in healing, and resists viruses.  Supports bone and collagen development by regulating calcium.  Treats canker and cold sores.

Lutein – is found in green leafy vegetables and protects the eyes from sunlight damage.  Lutein can be taken in a compound which also includes lycopene and zeaxanthin.  20mg daily appears to be adequate.

Lycopene – is a carotenoid found in tomatoes that acts like an antioxidant.  It protects the eyes from sunlight and improves heart health.  Lycopene can be taken in a compound which also includes lutein.

Lymphatic system – are the organs in the system that filter, trap, and remove foreign agents.

Lysine – is an essential amino acid needed for growth and nitrogen balance since essential amino acids cannot be made in the body and must be supplied by diet or supplementation.  It helps the body absorb calcium.


Magnesium – contributes to calcium absorption to build bones and cartilage, muscle relaxation, heart regularity, and more than 700 other body functions.  Helps maintain acid/alkaline body balance and metabolize sugar and carbohydrates.  Food sources consist of nuts, vegetables, and whole grains.  Excessive magnesium promotes diarrhea.  Mag should be taken in at least a 2 to 1 ratio with calcium; ex … 1,000 mg calcium and 500 grams of magnesium.  (RDA 420mg/320mg)

Maitake – a mushroom that combats fatigue, boosts immunity, and fights viral infections.

Malic Acid – involved in the production of energy in muscle cells.

Manganese – is considered an essential nutrient, because the body can’t create it and needs it for functions such as activating enzymes.  It plays many roles in supporting the digestion of protein, carbohydrates, and cholesterol.  Promotes bone growth.  Manganese Works in conjunction with vitamins, such as choline, thiamine, vitamins C and E.  Supports liver function.  It is found in nuts, seeds, tea, whole grains, and leafy green vegetables.  (RDA 2.3/1.8mg)

Melatonin – is used for prompting sleep.  Taken in low dosages under 3mg. Excessive intake can result in headaches, stomach cramps, dizziness, and irritability.

Methionine – is an essential amino acid the body needs for proper function of maintaining chemical reactions in the body.  It assists in the metabolism of fats, thus preventing fat buildup in the liver and arteries.  It can be found in meats such as lean beef, seafood, as well as in nuts and egg whites.

Micronutrients – one of the major nutrient groups.  It includes vitamins and minerals needed for energy, immunity, and numerous other functions.  These nutrients include vitamin C, vitamin E, B6, zinc, iron, copper, boron, magnesium, and molybdenum.  Primary food sources are vegetables, nuts, seeds, and whole wheat.

Milk Thistle – supports emulsifying fats in the liver to prevent a fatty liver.

Molybdenum – is a micronutrient found in organ meats, legumes, nuts, milk, cheese, and grains.  Important for absorbing sulfites and prevent other toxins from building up in the body.  It functions as a cofactor in numerous enzymes actions. However, too much molybdenum taken by mouth can be harmful in itself causing seizures and gout.  Do not take more than 2mg in supplements – check how much is already in your multi.  Do not take if pregnant without medical supervision.  (RDA 45mcg/45mcg)

MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane) – is anti-inflammatory substance that Inhibits arthritis.  Also supports reconstruction of connective tissue in joints by reducing the inflammation.

Multiple Vitamin/Mineral Supplements – are necessary for a healthy body and muscles – provide a wide spectrum of nutrients which help fill in holes or low spots in your diet.  If you take a multi you will find that it doesn’t supply you with sufficient calcium and magnesium and some other vitamins or minerals.  Take a cal/mag complex with your multi as well as vitamin C.


N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) – Protects all cells as an antioxidant.  It supports the replenishing of glutathione, the most powerful antioxidant made in the body.  It is found in chicken, cheese, eggs, turkey, yogurt, and sunflower seeds.  It has an impressive list of protecting the body for detoxification, brain health, heart health, respiratory, and inflammation while building the immune system.  Suggested supplement range 50-1,000mg per day.  Excessive amounts cause diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and constipation.

Natural killer cells – Part of the natural immunity of the body. They are a component of the immune system that kills malignant and viral cells in the body.

Niacin – is vitamin B-3 vitamin that raises your “good” cholesterol level.  It is important to all the cells in your body.  It occurs in meats, poultry, fish, leafy greens, and fish.   Niacin helps turn food into energy, lowers cholesterol, and eases arthritis.  It can be taken as a supplement but your body produces a lot of niacin.  If being used for high cholesterol, 500 to 1,000mg; however, it can produce flushing in the skin.  In one study, men with high cholesterol and moderate to severe ED who took 1,500 milligrams of niacin for 12 weeks saw improvements.

Non-essential amino acids – amino acids produced by our bodies.  These amino acids include alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine.  These amino acids support many functions in the body including tissue growth, immunity, blood cell formation, hormone development, and other.  Food sources would be protein laded such as meats, fish, and poultry.


Ornithine – is an amino acid that participates in the urea cycle.  It is used for improving athletic performance, and reducing glutamine poisoning.  Ornithine works with L-arginine to speed up cellular growth and the metabolism of excess body fat.

Osteoarthritis – is the most common form of arthritis.  It occurs when the cartilage, the cushion between bones, starts breaking down and the bones rub together, causing pain and inflammation, and subsequently stiffness.

Osteoporosis – happens when the bones thin out and lose density and because prone to breaking from being weak and brittle.  Being tested is the only way to know if you have this condition since there aren’t any noticeable symptoms until you break a bone.


PABA (para-amino benzoic acid) – is found in folic acid and foods such as eggs, milk, and meats.  It supports healthy skin health.

Papain – is a protein digesting enzyme from papayas that aids in digestion.  It is used for pain and swelling.

Pantothenic Acid (B5) – essential to normal metabolism in converting food to energy.  Participates in the production of hormones and cholesterol.  When taken with folic acid helps reverse graying by taking the hair back to its original color.

Para-amino benzoic acid (PABA) – is a chemical found in the folic acid and also in grains, eggs, milk, and meat.  It is taken by supplement for skin conditions.

Peppermint – Not only refreshes your breath but peppermint also eases an upset stomach, helps relieve headaches, clogged sinuses, and fights infections.

Phenylalanine – is an amino acid used to produce proteins and body cells.  It can be found in protein rich foods such as milk, eggs, and meat.

Phosphorus – is very important in helping build bones and teeth; produce energy via ATP and build muscle mass.  In addition, it filters kidney waste, produces DNA and RNA, and regulates the heartbeat.  Normal levels in the body are 2-5 mg/dl. However, excessive phosphorous levels can create bone and muscle problems as well as increased risk of heart disease.   Excess phosphorous can cause diarrhea, as well as soft tissue in organs.  Extra phosphorus pulls calcium from bones causing them to become porous – avoid sodas.  It also helps prevent kidney stones.  Foods sources include meat, poultry, fish, milk/dairy products, grains, and eggs. (RDA 700mg/700mg)

Phosphatidyl Choline – has shown in studies to protect liver cells from toxin damage.  It can help dietary cholesterol absorption.  Excellent source of choline for liver support, cholesterol metabolism, and healthy bile.

Phosphatidylserine (PS) – is a fat compound, which can be found in your brain and suggested use to support brain health.  PS reduces stress and the hyperactive elevation of cortisol, the stress hormone, one of the most dangerous free radicals produced in the body.  Maintenance level is 100mg to moderate cortisol. 100mg three times a day can also aid brain function for alertness.

Pollen – contains many active substances, including proteins, carbs, lipids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, enzymes and antioxidants.   Pollen contains many antioxidants to build immunity. Consumption could affect allergies.

Polyphenols – are antioxidant micronutrients derived from plant based foods.  They help improve digestion, diabetes, weight control issues, and cardiovascular issues.

Potassium – essential for nerve impulses, energy, proper calcium and magnesium metabolism especially for bone development, function of heart and muscles; also aids in relieving muscle cramps and blood pressure thru fluid/water balance.  Potassium improves kidney function with potassium citrate as a supplement by reducing urine acidity and preventing kidney stones.

Great sources of potassium – white beans, potatoes, beets, spinach, avocado, bananas, yogurt, salmon, coconut water, oranges, orange juice, tomato sauce, Swiss chard, and parsnip.  Your body needs about 4,700 mgs a day and that’s a lot.  However, the government limits nutritional supplements to only 99mgs per tablet!  Eating good foods as above has to make up the difference!  (RDA 4,700mg/4,700mg)

Prebiotics – Some plant fibers in the stomach help friendly bacteria grow in the gut.  Among them are galactooligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), oligofructose, and chicory fibers, major members of this important group.

Probiotics – are live bacteria that keep your digestive system healthy.  It is a real live colony of organisms that assist the conversion of food into useful nutrients for healthy living.  It is the friendly bacteria you hear about that maintains the health and wellness of the digestive system. There are two major probiotics, acidophilus and bifidus.  Probiotics that supply 5-10 billion units is an adequate amount.

Proline – is an amino acid.  Aids in the production of collagen in slowing down the aging process, heals cartilage, supports skin conditioning, and strengthens joint connective tissue and heart tissue.

Protein – proteins are the building blocks of our muscles and comprised of the amino acid complex.  Protein is an important nutrient for seniors as well as young folk for retaining or building muscle mass.  Muscles shrink as we grow older but you must be active and take in enough protein.  One half gram per pound of body weight, IE… 150 lb man needs 75 grams of protein daily.  More grams per body weight are needed if working out with weights.

Propolis – is a bee flavonoid that is antifungal and aids in wound healing.  It relieves allergy symptoms.

Proteolytic enzymes – promote digestion and break down food for energy, regulation of metabolic functions, and modulate inflammation.  These enzymes include papain, bromelain, pancreatin, chymotrypsin, trypsin, and rutin.  Good food sources are papayas, kiwi fruit, and pineapple.  Studies show an increase in the potency of natural killer cells (NK).

Protease – an enzyme found in the stomach, and intestinal juices to digest protein and peptides.

Psyllium – is a form of fiber from plant seeds to help in digestion and relieve constipation.   Take as directed and avoid excessive in take that can cause uncomfortable stomach feelings.  If they persist, get your fiber from your food.  (See fiber above)

Pycnogenol – Is a powerful antioxidant.  Removes dangerous substances and protects the lungs.

Pyridoxine (B6) – Vitamin B6 has been used to treat nerve disorders originating from certain medicines.  It may resist depression, promote a healthy brain, prevent clogged arteries thus reducing heart attack risk, and ward off kidney stones.

Pyruvate – is a by-product of the assimilation of sugar.  Pyruvate is used for high cholesterol, cataracts, and physical performance.    Liquid pyruvate helps defoliate facial skin for anti-aging treatment.


Quercetin – acts as an antioxidant by neutralizing free radicals, the chemical by-products that harm cell membranes and damage DNA.  Available as a dietary supplement, quercetin also possesses antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties.  Works well in combination with bromelain and vitamin C for better absorption.


RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) – are the levels of intake of essential nutrients that, on the basis of scientific knowledge, are judged by the Food and Nutrition Board to be adequate to meet the known needs of practically all healthy persons.  Per the National Institute of Health.   

Reishi – a mushroom that combats fatigue, boosts immunity, calms down anxiety, easier sleep, fights depression, and viral infections.

Resveratrol – is derived from purple and red fruits like grapes, and blueberries.  It is used for heart health, memory, and brain function.  Has anti-aging qualities.  It is currently being studied for Alzheimer’s disease.  200mg has been used in studies.

Riboflavin – Supports energy metabolism.  Helps eye system and cellular repair.

Royal Jelly – produced by the worker bees to feed the Queen Bee.  The jelly is full of numerous nutrients vital to the Queen’s health.  It is an excellent source of amino acids, vitamins A, C, D, E and the B complex vitamins.  Helps moderate stress and provide energy.

Rutin – a bioflavonoid, is antioxidant and anti-inflammatory.  It also strengthens blood vessels.

We are affiliated with Vitacost, a Kroger company.
Click here for more than 39,000 health and wellness
products shipped to over 160 countries and regions world wide!!

Home | Systems | Glossary | Blog | About Us | Contact Us

© 2020-2022 Health Bloom USA.  All rights reserved.

Disclaimer:  Health Bloom USA is a web publisher and does not provide personal medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Our website content and products are for informational purposes only.  You should consult your healthcare provider before embarking on any nutritional, diet, medical, or wellness program.
Content on Health Bloom USA is drawn from reliable resources and personal experiences and makes no guarantees about the efficacy or safety of content or products mentioned or listed on Health Bloom USA’s website nor liable thru links out to third party websites beyond our control.